Personal Benchmark was Made for Days Like This

Crosby_2015Dr. Daniel Crosby, Executive Director, The Center for Outcomes

Chuck Widger and I released our New York Times bestselling book, Personal Benchmark: Integrating Behavioral Finance and Investment Management, on October 20, 2014. Although the book was published in 2014, the writing process began in 2013, and Chuck’s original idea for a goals-based investing system is much older still. Both 2013 and 2014 were great years to be invested, with the S&P 500 returning 32.39% and 13.69% respectively. But although Personal Benchmark was crafted in a time of prosperity it was created with an eye to days just like today.

What is needed during times of fear is an embedded solution that helps clients say “no” to short-termism and say “yes” to something bigger.

As we wrote in the book, “While investor awareness and education can be powerful, the very nature of stressful events is such that rational thinking and self-reliance are at their nadir when fear is at its peak.”

Financial advisors do their clients a great service by educating them about investing best practices, but at times of volatility, logic is often thrown out the window. What is needed during times of fear is an embedded solution that helps clients say “no” to short-termism and say “yes” to something bigger.

When presented with an extremely complicated decision, it is human nature to seek simplicity, something psychologists refer to as “answering an easier question.” Rather than deeply consider and weight the relative importance of social, economic and foreign policy positions, voters tasked with choosing a Presidential candidate tend to instead answer, “Do I like this person?” Confronted with a complex dynamic system like the stock market, the easier question that we ask ourselves is, “Am I going to be OK?” Part of the power of the Personal Benchmark solution is that it helps clients answer this important question in the affirmative.

bookOur book discusses the human tendency to engage in “mental accounting”, the psychological partitioning of money into buckets and the corresponding change in attitudes toward that money depending on how it is accounted for. Page 154 features the story of Marty, a Philadelphia-area gang member who separated his money into “good” and “bad” piles depending on whether it was honestly or ill-gotten. Marty would tithe to his local church using the good money, but reserved his bad money for reinvestment in his criminal pursuits. Although we are hopefully all more civic-minded than Marty, we are no less likely to label our money and spend, invest and think about it relative to that label. One huge advantage of Personal Benchmark the solution is that it sets aside a dedicated “Safety” bucket for days just like today. When a client asks herself, “Will I be OK?” she can take comfort from the fact that her advisor has accounted for her short-term needs. Being comforted in the here-and-now, she will be less likely to put long-term capital appreciation needs at risk.

“While investor awareness and education can be powerful, the very nature of stressful events is such that rational thinking and self-reliance are at their nadir when fear is at its peak.”

Besides helping clients say “no” to short-termism, Personal Benchmark also helps advisors paint a more vivid, personalized picture of return needs. Page 203 of Personal Benchmark tells the story of Sir Isaac Newton, who lost a fortune by investing in what we now refer to as the “South Sea Bubble.” Newton invested some money, profited handsomely and eventually sold his shares in the South Sea Company. However, some of his friends continued to profit from their investment in South Sea shares and Newton was unable to sit idly by and watch people less gifted than he accrue such fantastic wealth. Goaded on by jealousy, he piled back in at the top and lost almost everything, saying after the fact, “I can calculate the movement of the stars, but not the madness of men.” Newton’s failure is a direct result of anchoring his benchmark to keeping up with his friends instead of attending to his own needs and appetite for risk. If Personal Benchmark’s Safety bucket is for providing comfort today, then the Accumulation bucket is a vehicle for rich conversations about the dreams of tomorrow. As clients simultaneously manage their short-term fears and identify their long-term goals, they are able to experience the best of a goals-based solution.

Personal Benchmark was created in a time of comfort and even complacency on the part of some investors, but was done so with a perfect knowledge that there would be days like this. At Brinker Capital we believe that an advisor’s greatest value is providing “behavioral alpha”, increasing returns and mitigating risk through the provision of sound counsel. Our goal is to be your partner in that sometimes-difficult journey and Personal Benchmark is evidence of that commitment.

The views expressed are those of Brinker Capital and are not intended as investment advice or recommendation. For informational purposes only. Holdings are subject to change. Brinker Capital, Inc., a Registered Investment Advisor.

Five Answers for the Voices in Your Head

Crosby_2015Dr. Daniel Crosby, Executive Director, The Center for Outcomes

Many investors are waking up this morning to the unsettling realization that trading was halted in China last night after another precipitous market drop. When paired with rumors of hydrogen bomb testing in North Korea, the recent acts of domestic terrorism and a long-in-the-tooth bull market, it can all be a little frightening and overwhelming.

It’s at a time like this that it’s best to temper the catastrophic voices in our head with some research-based truths about how financial markets work.

For each of the rash, fear-induced common thoughts below (in bold), we have countered with a dose of realism:

“It’s been a good run, but it’s time to get out.”
From 1926 to 1997, the worst market outcome at any one year was pretty scary, -43.3%; but consider how time changes the equation—the worst return of any 25-year period was 5.9% annualized. Take it from the Rolling Stones: “Time is on my side, yes it is.”

“I can’t just stand here!”
In his book, What Investors Really Want, behavioral economist Meir Statman cites research from Sweden showing that the heaviest traders lose 4% of their account value each year. Across 19 major stock exchanges, investors who made frequent changes trailed buy-and-hold investors by 1.5% a year. Your New Year’s resolution may be to be more active in 2016, but that shouldn’t apply to the market.

“If I time this just right…”
As Ben Carlson relates in A Wealth of Common Sense, “A study performed by the Federal Reserve…looked at mutual fund inflows and outflows over nearly 30 years from 1984 to 2012. Predictably, they found that most investors poured money into the markets after large gains and pulled money out after sustaining losses—a buy high, sell low debacle of a strategy.” Everyone knows to buy low and sell high, but very few put it into practice. Will you?

“I don’t want to bother my advisor.”
Vanguard’s Advisor’s Alpha study did an excellent job of quantifying the value added (in basis points) of many of the common activities performed by an advisor, and the results may surprise you. They found that the greatest value provided by an advisor was behavioral coaching, which added 150 bps per year, far greater than any other activity. At times like this is why investors have advisors so don’t be afraid to call them for advice and support.

“THIS IS THE END OF THE WORLD!”
Since 1928, the U.S. economy has been in recession about 20% of the time and has still managed to compound wealth at a dramatic clip. What’s more, we have never gone more than ten years at any time without at least one recession. Now, we are not currently in a recession, but you could expect between 10 and 15 in your lifetime. The sooner you can reconcile yourself to the inevitability of volatility, the faster you will be able to take advantage of all the good that markets do.

Brinker Capital understands that investing for the long-term can be daunting, especially during a time like this, but we are focused on providing investment solutions, like the Personal Benchmark program, that help investors manage the emotions of investing to achieve their unique financial goals.

For more of what not to do during times of market volatility, click here.

The views expressed are those of Brinker Capital and are not intended as investment advice or recommendation. For informational purposes only. Holdings are subject to change. Brinker Capital, Inc., a Registered Investment Advisor.

Debt and Skepticism: A Millennial Mindset

Dan WilliamsDan Williams, CFPInvestment Analyst

Having overshot 30 by a couple of years, I have had to come to terms with the many changes that come with my new age group. Some good, such as lower car insurance rates. Some bad, such as feeling that 9:00pm is closer to the departure time rather than arrival time for a social gathering. Some are mixed; being called “sir” with a high consistency and no tone of irony. I am also no longer considered to be part of the “young adult” group that is said to represent the emerging consumers in the economy and, subsequently, more closely studied by market researchers. These new kids on the block, known as the Millennials, had the financial crisis occur just as many were entering college and the workforce and were beginning to make their first big life decisions. Not surprisingly, they now think about money differently than I did at their age, just a brief decade ago. So what is the current financial mindset of this group some seven years later?

Goldman Sachs reported, in a June 2015 study, as shown below, that this group upon receiving a windfall of cash would look to pay down debt more than any other option by a wide margin.

Williams_chart1

Goldman Sachs Research Proprietary Survey

The result is not entirely unsurprising given that a majority of college students graduate with debt and, often, this debt is of a daunting amount. However, the magnitude of this victory reflects an overall conservative outlook on how to manage their financial matters.

The second finding, shown below, is of greater concern as it shows Millennials to be very skeptical of investing in the stock market. When asked whether investing in the stock market was a good idea for them, less than 20% answered that the stock market is the best way to save for the future. Approximately twice this amount claimed ignorance, fear of volatility, or lack of perceived fairness as reasons to avoid the stock market. Clearly, the events of the financial crisis have left scars on this group that have yet to heal.

Williams_chart2

Goldman Sachs Research Proprietary Survey

I am left feeling very conflicted for this group’s future financial health. On one hand, it’s very admirable that, unlike some prior young adult groups, this group has realized early on that debt is not something you simply attempt to defer payment of indefinitely. At least in the case of high interest credit card debt, it is hard to find fault with the pay-down-the-debt option as a sound financial decision. However, an inflexible focus on debt repayment combined with shunning or deferring of investing in the equity markets represents a significant challenge to this group’s ability to save meaningfully for the future.

Quite simply, equity investing has been proven to be one of the best ways to grow purchasing power over time. One advantage the Millennials have is ample time to invest, ride out periods of market volatility and let returns compound. To forego any portion of this advantage has potential to be tragic for future savings. Consider a one-year delay in retirement investing at the start of a career The missed opportunity is more than just the amount of one year’s contribution; rather that one year’s contribution compounded with typically 40+ years of returns until retirement. Over 40 years, a single $5,000 investment compounded at 8% becomes over $100,000. Six consecutive years of $5,000 contributions compounds to over $500,000. This is the potential cost of delaying investing just for “a couple of years.” In other words, earlier contributions are invested longer and can compound to greater amounts. On a per-dollar basis, these are the most impactful retirement contributions.

Contribution at start of year Value of contribution at end of year 40, assuming 8% return per year
Year 1 $5,000 $108,622.61
Year 2 $5,000 $100,576.49
Year 3 $5,000 $93,126.38
Year 4 $5,000 $86,228.13
Year 5 $5,000 $79,840.86
Year 6 $5,000 $73,926.72
Total $542,321.72

Source: Brinker Capital

Albert Einstein said, “Compounding interest is the eighth wonder of the world. He who understands it, earns it. He who doesn’t, pays it.” More attention is given by advisors to older clients with more assets and fewer years until retirement. Often this is due to the fact that clients become more tuned into investing matters as they begin to see the light at the end of the tunnel (whether it be the light of retirement or the oncoming train of insufficient savings). However, the greater opportunity for advisors to help a client’s future financial situation occurs earlier on in a client’s investment life. Helping young clients start off with good financial decision making, such as early investing, and letting these good decisions compound, is likely one of the best ways he or she can add value. Each client situation is different as each client has different goals. However a secure retirement is likely a very common dream and as Langston Hughes wrote, “A dream deferred is a dream denied.” Anything that we can do to ensure those dreams are not deferred is truly good work.

The views expressed are those of Brinker Capital and are not intended as investment advice or recommendation. For informational purposes only. Holdings are subject to change. Brinker Capital, Inc., a Registered Investment Advisor.

Stress Management for Financial Advisors

Crosby_2015Dr. Daniel Crosby, Founder, Nocturne Capital

The dictionary definition of stress is, “a specific response by the body to a stimulus, such as fear or pain, that disturbs or interferes with the normal physiological equilibrium of an organism.” But one can scarcely conceive of a more pointless construct to define than stress, because just as the Supreme Court famously said of smut, you know it when you see it. This is especially true of financial advisors, who inhabit one of the most stressful professional roles in the modern corporate landscape.

shutterstock_247024930Health.com named financial advisors to their list of 10 Careers with High Rates of Depression.” A study titled, “Casualties of Wall Street” found that 23% of advisors surveyed had significant signs of clinical depression while another 36% percent showed mild to moderate symptoms. And a study published in the “Journal of Financial Therapy” found that the vast majority of financial professionals surveyed experience medium to high levels of post-traumatic stress in the wake of the 2008 crisis.

So what’s an advisor to do? Well, the tips for managing of stress are often simple and intuitive. So simple in fact, that they may be overlooked by advisors accustomed to a life filled with risk and complexity. Notwithstanding their simplicity, try the tips below to start feeling better today:

Tame technology – The 24/7 availability of technology such as email has done a great deal to increase the stress level of people everywhere. Having a means of being reached at any time by your clients means that you are in a constant state of heightened readiness. Set limits on your electronic availability by turning off or limiting the times of day when you “plug in.” These periods of electronic disengagement will allow you to connect with others socially, exercise, and pursue hobbies, all of which have been proven to combat stress.

Damsel in Eustress – One common misconception is that stress is always the result of negative events. Recently, an advisor was crying in my office, unable to pinpoint the reason for her feelings of anxiety. As I learned more, she revealed that she was overseeing a number of projects at work, preparing for a wedding, and readying herself for a move. Although each of these things was positive, the cumulative effect of all of this positive change was quite stressful. Remember, the body cannot distinguish “eustress” (literally, good stress) from bad stress, so be sure to take a moment to relax, even when things are going your way.

shutterstock_41447092As a Man Thinketh – Too often, we accept the fact that things just “are” and that we have little control over our lives. Viktor Frankl said it best, “Between stimulus and response there is a space. In that space is our power to choose our response. In our response lies our growth and freedom.” The things that happen to you can be as positive or negative as you construe them to be. If you choose to interpret life events in an upbeat and optimistic manner, you will position yourself for success in all areas, and achieve that success with calm confidence. For practice, try and think of five positive things to emerge as a result of the most recent economic volatility (e.g., spent more time with family).

Little Comfort – It is a strange paradox that all of the so-called “comfort foods” have the very opposite of the desired effect on stress levels. Caffeine causes elevations in heart rate and respiration that can mimic a panic attack. Alcohol depresses our mood and impairs decision making, and eating fatty foods provides a brief period of pleasure followed by sustained periods of regret and lethargy. While we understand that an evening run or a healthy meal may be advisable, our short-sighted bodies tell us differently in times of stress or sadness. The next time you are feeling down, let your brain drive your decision-making; your body will thank you later.

Fake Out – Have you ever heard the old saying, “fake it ‘till you make it?” Well, it turns out that science substantiates this pithy phrase. In the past, the conventional psychological wisdom was that we felt a certain way, and then exhibited behaviors that conveyed that emotion. Put simply, “I’m happy, therefore I smile.” What more research has found, is that the opposite is also true – “I smile, therefore I’m happy.” Research subjects who were instructed to smile, regardless of whether or not they were actually happy, saw an increase in mood. This recent evidence suggests that being proactive, maintaining a schedule, and acting happy can start to improve a negative mood. It turns out that, some of the times you feel least like acting upbeat are the times it could benefit you most.

The market is extremely volatile right now, but that doesn’t mean that your life needs to be. 2 to 3% of outperformance achieved by those who work with advisors, is predicated on your being an effective behavioral coach during times of uncertainty. It is only as you take steps to manage stress in your own life that you can effectively model the kind of behavior that most benefits your clients.

Views expressed are for illustrative purposes only. The information was created and supplied by Dr. Daniel Crosby of Nocturne Capital, an unaffiliated third party. Brinker Capital Inc., a Registered Investment Advisor

Becoming an Obvious Expert Beverly D. Flaxington for Brinker Capital

One of the best ways for financial advisors to generate new business is to become “known”. Known as the expert, as the advisor with insights, and as the person who has something important to say. Many investors like to work with someone they perceive as knowledgeable and well-rounded.
How best to become an obvious expert? The first important piece is to be seen and heard. This can be done through using a PR (public relations) strategy and through social media. PR includes things like being interviewed on radio and television, being written about in newspapers and periodicals, and issuing press releases or other news stories. Social media includes things like LinkedIn, Twitter and Facebook, and means engaging in online discussion and information boards to talk about your expertise.
Some advisors shy away from the media because they don’t know what to say. As a first step, think about what interesting angles you can address relative to important topics in the news. Don’t limit your thinking to just the stock and bond market movements; think about trends for retirees and/or divorcees, multi-generational issues, or any other newsworthy trend that can connect back to your process or philosophy with regard to investing or planning.
Consider some of the following to establish your credibility as the obvious expert:
(1) Radio and television interviews are “free” advertising. Read and watch different journalists and reporters. Find out what they often report on. Write an email or a note to respond to some information they’ve given and your angle on their story. Make friends with your local media. Reporters and journalists are looking for new, fresh angles all the time.
(2) If you want to put more effort into it, consider doing your own blog talk radio show. You can pay a nominal fee to get set up on one of the major networks such as Live365 or blogtalkradio. With your own show you are responsible for coming up with content for each program, but you can always leverage other relationships such as COIs (Centers of Influence) like realtors, attorneys or accountants. Having your own show means you would be the interviewer instead of the interviewee. However, it allows you to get your thoughts and ideas across to an audience each week or month, depending on the show schedule.
(3) Create audio or video recordings of any interviews you have, or just record yourself telling case stories about how you work with clients. Circulate the audio or video to the press and also post it on your website.
(4) Issue a press release about something interesting happening at your firm. This could be the launch of a new website, a new angle on your service offerings, or a new hire to your firm. Anything happening at your firm can be newsworthy. Send press releases out over many of the free services available, such as this or this
(5) Engage in social media. As you pursue relationships with the younger generation (i.e. anyone under 40 years of age), they will immediately search you out on Google or some other engine to find whatever they can about you. It’s imperative to have a presence of some kind. Have an updated LinkedIn account, follow people on Twitter or create an account, if your compliance department allows it. Have a blog if you can, or at minimum post to other’s blogs when you have a response or idea to share.
Put a focus on becoming known, being seen and staying out in the public eye.

There are many opportunities to do so. Consider the ones that are right for your practice.

Tough Negotiators See Red By Sue Bergin

Want to best position yourself next time you are negotiating fees, haggling with the broker dealer on issuance requirements, or trying to get your client the best rate on a mortgage?  Put a quick PowerPoint slide together with your key points and put it on a blue background.  
 
Or grey.  
 
Anything but red.
 
Researchers from Virginia Tech and the University of Virginia recently released a study describing how colors affect consumers’ willingness to pay in purchase settings like auctions and negotiations. They found that the color red influences how much participants were willing to pay in competitive situations.
 
The color red has long been known to invoke feelings of aggression.  Red is an emotionally intense color that enhances metabolism, increases respiration rate, and raises blood pressure.  It is also one of the easiest colors to see, which explains why stop signs, stoplights, and fire equipment are usually painted red.
 
Study participants who “saw red” entered higher bid jumps in auctions and made lower offers in negotiation settings.  In both cases, they took a competitive stance.  In bidding situations, they were willing to increase bids to ensure that they “won” the item and were not outbid.
 
In negotiation settings, participants who gained their information on a red background also wanted to “win.”  Their initial offers were low.  For example, when participants were shown vacation packages that were displayed on a blue background and were asked to make their best offer, the average was $712.  The same package set against a red background yielded an average offer of $684.  
 
The researchers concluded that the red background induced greater aggression, which caused participants to implicitly compete against the seller for the best deal.
 
Advisors typically avoid showing their clients anything that includes the color red.  This study gives us one more reason to love blue.

Understanding Behavioral Style in Developing New Business – Part 2 by Bev Flaxington

In Part 1 of this two-part blog on behavioral selling, we discussed how behavior style impacts communication and why it is crucial for the successful advisor, business development representative or client services person to understand this science. Now, in Part 2, we give some sales examples.

If an advisor learns how to identify her or his own behavioral style, and learns all the nuances around it, he or she can learn the styles of buyers and influencers. Then, he or she can adapt their behavioral style to increase the probability of true connection with prospects and for developing long-term relationships – even with people very different from themselves. For business development people, this leads to an increased ability to close more business with new and existing prospects and clients. For client service folks, this means the ability to manage a long-term relationship even when there’s no real “click” of personalities.

In Part 1 we described the four styles – D for Dominance, I for Influencing, S for Steadiness and C for Compliance. Everyone has a “core” style, e.g. one dominant style out of these four; having determined that your prospect or client prominently displays the characteristics of one, your objective is to communicate with him or her accordingly. Here are some characteristics of each and how you’d approach them.

“D” – Interested in new & unique services or products; very “results” focused; makes quick decisions
“I” – Interested in showy and flashy products; focused on the “experience” (is it, or does it allow for, fun!); makes quick decisions
“S” – Interested in traditional products; very trusting and is looking for trust; is slow in decision making
“C” – Interested in proven, time-tested products; needs and seeks information; is very slow in decision making

As an example of communicating based on this knowledge, we’ll take the “I”. We’ll call this client Mr. Jones. He, like other core “I”s, is effusive and upbeat – an extrovert. They have a high need to verbalize ideas and their key emotion is optimism. Their expectations of others are high and their conflict response is to run away. Their stress reliever is interaction and socializing with people. Descriptors for them include inspiring, persuasive and trusting.

To further help you determine what core style you’re dealing with, there are four communication factors that are giveaways for each of the four styles. These factors are 1) Tone of Voice, 2) Pace of Speech and Action, 3) Words Used and 4) Body Language. In our example, how can you tell you’re interacting with a core “I”? Key on the communication factors for instant clues:
• Tone of Voice – it will be energized, enthusiastic, friendly and colorful
• Pace of Speech and Action – s/he will exhibit fast speech and fast action, and be fast toward people
• Words Used – fun, excitement, immediate, now, today, new and unique
• Body Language – you’ll feel the fast pace, the fast movement and orientation toward people.

Now that you’ve identified Mr. Jones as a high “I”, you must calibrate your own natural style for communicating with him. So if you are, say, a high “C” – as many advisors are – you need to make sure that you pick up your pace a bit, smile and nod your head to show that you’re fully engaged with the high “I,” keep the focus on them and ask questions, respond to their small talk and give them as much time as possible to verbalize. For a core “C” (or “S”) advisor, this can be exhausting – but you can relax after the meeting, which will be more successful if you adapt!

By taking the time to listen, observe and ask good questions, advisors can discern the behavior style of prospects and clients – and open whole new relational opportunities in the process. Next time, we’ll discuss some of the questions you can ask to help you determine style.

Understanding Behavioral Style in Developing New Business – Part 1 by Bev Flaxington

Have you ever been taken completely by surprise by a client or prospect? Or have you ever been unable to close a sale because you just couldn’t “get through” to them? Today, investors are being bombarded by so many advisors and business development people – all trying to connect and persuade them to become clients. However, one of the most fundamental ways to connect with prospects is often overlooked by those in a selling role: understanding behavioral styles and adapting one’s communication approach to the people s/he’s trying to persuade.

You may have at one time taken a training course on relationship-building, face-to-face selling skills, or something similar, but the key to understanding the buyer’s perspective necessarily begins with an understanding of behavioral style. This is because behavioral style is the crux of understanding communication style – and true communication is the key to developing great relationships in both your personal and professional life.
So, is it really true that your likelihood of signing new clients could come down to your behavioral style? Research conducted in 1984 and validated again every year since has proven three things: 1) people buy from people with similar behavioral styles to their own, 2) people in a selling type of role tend to gravitate towards people with behavioral styles similar to their own, and 3) if people in a selling or business development type role adapt their behavioral style to that of the prospect, sales increase.

Many advisors, business development and client service personnel have excellent communication skills, but have difficulty in relationships with prospects and clients – and don’t understand why. Something just doesn’t feel right, but they’re not sure how to diagnose the problem or modify their behavior for greater success. Often times, it’s not technique (i.e. the questions asked, presentation or negotiating skills, etc.) but rather a lack of understanding of one’s own behavioral style and motivators, and of knowing that behavioral differences can cause significant communication difficulties that hamstring closing a prospect or an ongoing relationship with clients.
One scientific way to understand behavioral style is through an assessment called DISC (Dominance, Influencing, Steadiness, Compliance). Based upon the work of Carl Jung, the DISC approach was invented by William Moulton Marston, inventor of the lie detector and holder of a Harvard MBA, over 80 years ago. The statistically based profiles show a person’s preferred styles on four scales of behavior – Problems, People, Pace and Procedures:

• Dominance (“D” factor) How one handles problems and challenges
• Influence (“I” factor) How one handles people and influences others
• Steadiness (“S” factor) How one handles work environment, change and pace
• Compliance (“C” factor) How one handles rules and procedures set by others

Depending on our differences in style and approach, we can either get along very easily together (because we’re so much alike!) or we can have significant clashes in our relationship.

A person’s behavioral preferences have everything to do with their communication approach and style. People who operate with very different styles have a difficult time “hearing” one another and communicating effectively. For instance, if I communicate only within my own behavioral comfort zone, I will only be effective with people who are just like me. However, in the corporate environment we are dealing every day with colleagues, prospects, clients and management – all of whom can be very different behaviorally. Not only is communication difficult where there are differences, but often individuals become hostile and conflict-oriented toward one another. Significant time, effort and corporate money is wasted because people are unable to “get along” and work together effectively toward common corporate goals. (Refer to the Brinker blog “Dealing with Difficult Clients” for a complementary discussion of this topic.)

In the next blog, we’ll take a “deeper dive” into behavior style – how you can identify it in your prospects and use this knowledge to improve your selling effectiveness.