Diversification: It’s Not Beauty and the Beast, but Still a Tale as Old as Time

Crosby_2015Dr. Daniel Crosby, Executive Director, The Center for Outcomes & Founder, Nocturne Capital

Hedge fund guru Cliff Asness calls it “the only free lunch in investing.” Toby Moskowitz calls it “the lowest hanging fruit in investing.” Dr. Brian Portnoy says that doing it “means always having to say you’re sorry.” We’re speaking, of course, of diversification.

Diversification, or the reduction of non-market risk by investing in a variety of assets, is one of the hallmarks of traditional approaches to investing. What is less appreciated, however, are the ways in which it makes emotional as well as economic sense not to have all of your eggs in one basket. As is so often the case, the poets, philosophers and aesthetes beat the mathematicians to understanding this basic tenet of emotional self-regulation. The Bible mentions the benefits of diversification as a risk management technique in Ecclesiastes, a book estimated to have been written roughly 935 BC. It reads:

But divide your investments among many places, for you do not know what risks might lie ahead. (Ecclesiastes 11:2)

The Talmud too references an early form of diversification, the prescription there being to split one’s assets into three parts—one third in business, another third in currency and the final third in real estate.

The most famous, and perhaps most eloquent, early mention of diversification is found in Shakespeare’s, The Merchant of Venice, where we read:

My ventures are not in one bottom trusted,

Nor to one place; nor is my whole estate

Upon the fortune of this present year:

Therefore my merchandise makes me not sad. (I.i.42-45)

It is interesting to note how these early mentions of diversification focus as much on human psychology as they do the economic benefits of diversification, for investing broadly is as much about managing fear and uncertainty as it is making money.

Don't put your eggs in one basketBrought to the forefront by Harry Markowitz in the 1950s, diversification across a number of asset classes reduced volatility and the impact of what is known as “variance drain.” Variance drain sounds heady, but in a nutshell, it refers to the detrimental effects of compounding wealth off of low lows when investing in a highly volatile manner. Even when arithmetic means are the same, the impact on accumulated wealth can be dramatic. (This is not the same as the more widely used annualized return numbers, as they account for variance drain, but for this illustration, we’ll look specifically at variance drain.)

Say you invest $100,000 each in two products that both average 10% returns per year, one with great volatility and the other with managed volatility. The managed volatility money rises 10% for each of two years, yielding a final result of $121,000. The more volatile investment returns -20% in year one and a whopping 40% in year two, also resulting in a similar 10% average yearly gain. The good news is that you can brag to your golf buddies about having achieved an average return of 40%—you are an investment wizard! The bad news, however, is that your investment will sit at a mere $112,000, fully $9,000 less than your investment in the less volatile investment since your gains compounded off of lower lows. (To account for this, the investment industry uses annualized returns, which account for variance drain, rather than average returns.)

Managing variance drain is important, but a second, more important benefit of diversification is that it constrains bad behavior. As we’ve said on many occasions, the average equity investor lags the returns of the equity market significantly. It is simply hard to overstate the wealth-destroying impact of volatility-borne irrationality. The behavioral implication of volatile holdings is that the ride is harder to bear for loss-averse investors (yes, that means you).

As volatility increases, so too does the chance of a paper loss, which is likely to decrease holding periods and increase trading behavior, both of which are correlated with decreased returns. Warren Buffett’s first rule of investing is to never lose money. His second rule? Never forget the first rule. The Oracle of Omaha understands both the financial and behavioral ruin that come from taking oversized risk, and more importantly, the power of winning by not losing.

DiversificationAt Brinker Capital, we follow a multi-asset class investing approach because we believe that broad diversification is humility in practice. As much as experts would like to convince you otherwise, the simple fact is that no one knows which asset classes will perform well at any given time and that diversification is the only logical response to such uncertainty. But far from being a lame concession to uncertainty, the power of a multi-asset class approach has the potential to deliver powerful results. Take, for example, the “Lost Decade” of the early aughts, thusly named because investors in large capitalization U.S. stocks (e.g., the S&P 500) would have realized losses of 1% per annum over that 10-year stretch. Ouch. Those who were evenly diversified across five asset classes (U.S. stocks, foreign stocks, commodities, real estate, and bonds), however, didn’t experience a lost decade at all, realizing a respectable annualized gain of 7.2% per year. Other years, the shoe is on the other foot. Over the seven years following the Great Recession, stocks have exploded upward while a diversified basket of assets has had more tepid growth. But the recent underperformance of a diversified basket of assets does nothing to change the wisdom of diversification; a principle that has been around for millennia and will serve investors well for centuries to come.

Diversification does not assure a profit or protection against loss. The views expressed are those of Brinker Capital and are not intended as investment advice or recommendation. For informational purposes only. Holdings are subject to change. Brinker Capital, a Registered Investment Advisor.

Guiding Your Child to Financial Independence

John_SolomonJohn Solomon, Executive Vice President, Wealth Advisory

Good money management is a fine example of a skill best learned young. The earlier your child gains control over their financial world, the more time your child has to make thoughtful decisions that bring them closer to financial freedom and the fulfillment of their life goals.

You can guide your child towards financial independence by imparting these valuable lessons:

Promote Him/Her to Account Manager

The best way to encourage financial responsibility is to make your child responsible for their financial decisions.

When your child is young, you most likely make all of the financial decisions for them. You probably opened their first bank account when he or she was just an infant. You instruct when to make a deposit and when money should be withdrawn.

At some point, well before the child reaches the age of maturity and can legally take independent action on the account, you should begin to cede some control. The child should start to take on the responsibility that comes with managing the account, getting comfortable with the decision-making needed to guide financial growth. After all, this is the money that will fund future whims.

Once children feel ownership over some pool of money, it should be the source of funding for non-essential items. As the account manager, the child then must decide whether he or she wants something badly enough to take money out of their account. If money is spent from the account, your child will have to figure out how to replenish it. Discretionary purchases exceeding the amount available in the account should be discouraged, to emphasize the notion that money is a limited resource.

Let Consequences Teach

There comes a time in a young adult’s life when they must live with the consequences of their decisions and circumstances. For example, often young drivers fail to consider insurance, fuel, and routine maintenance when they calculate how much they can afford to spend on a car. Increased expenses are a natural consequence of car ownership. Sometimes, these overlooked costs dawn on the teen only after the uninsured car is in the driveway, with an empty gas tank. This is a prime time for natural consequences teach the lesson. If you swoop in to protect your child from a painful lesson, they learn an entirely different lesson. They learn that when their money runs out, they simply need to tap into yours.

Encouraging Surfing

Before your child makes a purchase, insist upon comparison shopping. Encourage your son or daughter to surf the internet to explore the best deals available.

Make Them Honor Financial Commitments

Teenagers can come up with all kinds of creative excuses for not following through. Backing out of commitments, especially financial commitments, should be non-negotiable. If your child asks you to float them some money for an impulse purchase, make them pay you back. If your child agrees to shovel a driveway or babysit a neighbor, make sure they show up, on time and ready to work.

Set Guidelines

Before your child receives his or her first paycheck, you should talk about the importance of saving for both short- and long-term goals. Set the expectation that each a certain percentage of pay period should go towards meeting those objectives.

Give Incentives

Some children seem hardwired to spend their money as quickly as it is earned while others save every penny. To encourage saving, consider providing financial incentives. For example, you may deposit $10 for every $100 your child puts in the bank.

Give Them a Peek

Many families don’t talk about money. Parents often worry their child will misconstrue the information, share it with others, become complacent, or endure an unnecessary burden. When you explain certain aspects of your financial life to your child, however, it provides context and clarity to your decisions. It also allows you to talk about what money means to you. Nothing makes an example clearer for a child as when you explain trade-offs you have made in your life, like buying a smaller house closer to work, so you spend less time commuting and more time with the family.

The Brinker Capital Wealth Advisory team delivers exceptional service and support to meet the unique wealth management needs of high-net-worth and ultra-high-net-worth investors, family offices, institutions, and endowments.The views expressed are those of Brinker Capital and are not intended as investment advice or recommendation. For informational purposes only. Holdings are subject to change. Brinker Capital, Inc., a Registered Investment Advisor.

Personal Benchmark was Made for Days Like This

Crosby_2015Dr. Daniel Crosby, Executive Director, The Center for Outcomes

Chuck Widger and I released our New York Times bestselling book, Personal Benchmark: Integrating Behavioral Finance and Investment Management, on October 20, 2014. Although the book was published in 2014, the writing process began in 2013, and Chuck’s original idea for a goals-based investing system is much older still. Both 2013 and 2014 were great years to be invested, with the S&P 500 returning 32.39% and 13.69% respectively. But although Personal Benchmark was crafted in a time of prosperity it was created with an eye to days just like today.

What is needed during times of fear is an embedded solution that helps clients say “no” to short-termism and say “yes” to something bigger.

As we wrote in the book, “While investor awareness and education can be powerful, the very nature of stressful events is such that rational thinking and self-reliance are at their nadir when fear is at its peak.”

Financial advisors do their clients a great service by educating them about investing best practices, but at times of volatility, logic is often thrown out the window. What is needed during times of fear is an embedded solution that helps clients say “no” to short-termism and say “yes” to something bigger.

When presented with an extremely complicated decision, it is human nature to seek simplicity, something psychologists refer to as “answering an easier question.” Rather than deeply consider and weight the relative importance of social, economic and foreign policy positions, voters tasked with choosing a Presidential candidate tend to instead answer, “Do I like this person?” Confronted with a complex dynamic system like the stock market, the easier question that we ask ourselves is, “Am I going to be OK?” Part of the power of the Personal Benchmark solution is that it helps clients answer this important question in the affirmative.

bookOur book discusses the human tendency to engage in “mental accounting”, the psychological partitioning of money into buckets and the corresponding change in attitudes toward that money depending on how it is accounted for. Page 154 features the story of Marty, a Philadelphia-area gang member who separated his money into “good” and “bad” piles depending on whether it was honestly or ill-gotten. Marty would tithe to his local church using the good money, but reserved his bad money for reinvestment in his criminal pursuits. Although we are hopefully all more civic-minded than Marty, we are no less likely to label our money and spend, invest and think about it relative to that label. One huge advantage of Personal Benchmark the solution is that it sets aside a dedicated “Safety” bucket for days just like today. When a client asks herself, “Will I be OK?” she can take comfort from the fact that her advisor has accounted for her short-term needs. Being comforted in the here-and-now, she will be less likely to put long-term capital appreciation needs at risk.

“While investor awareness and education can be powerful, the very nature of stressful events is such that rational thinking and self-reliance are at their nadir when fear is at its peak.”

Besides helping clients say “no” to short-termism, Personal Benchmark also helps advisors paint a more vivid, personalized picture of return needs. Page 203 of Personal Benchmark tells the story of Sir Isaac Newton, who lost a fortune by investing in what we now refer to as the “South Sea Bubble.” Newton invested some money, profited handsomely and eventually sold his shares in the South Sea Company. However, some of his friends continued to profit from their investment in South Sea shares and Newton was unable to sit idly by and watch people less gifted than he accrue such fantastic wealth. Goaded on by jealousy, he piled back in at the top and lost almost everything, saying after the fact, “I can calculate the movement of the stars, but not the madness of men.” Newton’s failure is a direct result of anchoring his benchmark to keeping up with his friends instead of attending to his own needs and appetite for risk. If Personal Benchmark’s Safety bucket is for providing comfort today, then the Accumulation bucket is a vehicle for rich conversations about the dreams of tomorrow. As clients simultaneously manage their short-term fears and identify their long-term goals, they are able to experience the best of a goals-based solution.

Personal Benchmark was created in a time of comfort and even complacency on the part of some investors, but was done so with a perfect knowledge that there would be days like this. At Brinker Capital we believe that an advisor’s greatest value is providing “behavioral alpha”, increasing returns and mitigating risk through the provision of sound counsel. Our goal is to be your partner in that sometimes-difficult journey and Personal Benchmark is evidence of that commitment.

The views expressed are those of Brinker Capital and are not intended as investment advice or recommendation. For informational purposes only. Holdings are subject to change. Brinker Capital, Inc., a Registered Investment Advisor.

Five Answers for the Voices in Your Head

Crosby_2015Dr. Daniel Crosby, Executive Director, The Center for Outcomes

Many investors are waking up this morning to the unsettling realization that trading was halted in China last night after another precipitous market drop. When paired with rumors of hydrogen bomb testing in North Korea, the recent acts of domestic terrorism and a long-in-the-tooth bull market, it can all be a little frightening and overwhelming.

It’s at a time like this that it’s best to temper the catastrophic voices in our head with some research-based truths about how financial markets work.

For each of the rash, fear-induced common thoughts below (in bold), we have countered with a dose of realism:

“It’s been a good run, but it’s time to get out.”
From 1926 to 1997, the worst market outcome at any one year was pretty scary, -43.3%; but consider how time changes the equation—the worst return of any 25-year period was 5.9% annualized. Take it from the Rolling Stones: “Time is on my side, yes it is.”

“I can’t just stand here!”
In his book, What Investors Really Want, behavioral economist Meir Statman cites research from Sweden showing that the heaviest traders lose 4% of their account value each year. Across 19 major stock exchanges, investors who made frequent changes trailed buy-and-hold investors by 1.5% a year. Your New Year’s resolution may be to be more active in 2016, but that shouldn’t apply to the market.

“If I time this just right…”
As Ben Carlson relates in A Wealth of Common Sense, “A study performed by the Federal Reserve…looked at mutual fund inflows and outflows over nearly 30 years from 1984 to 2012. Predictably, they found that most investors poured money into the markets after large gains and pulled money out after sustaining losses—a buy high, sell low debacle of a strategy.” Everyone knows to buy low and sell high, but very few put it into practice. Will you?

“I don’t want to bother my advisor.”
Vanguard’s Advisor’s Alpha study did an excellent job of quantifying the value added (in basis points) of many of the common activities performed by an advisor, and the results may surprise you. They found that the greatest value provided by an advisor was behavioral coaching, which added 150 bps per year, far greater than any other activity. At times like this is why investors have advisors so don’t be afraid to call them for advice and support.

“THIS IS THE END OF THE WORLD!”
Since 1928, the U.S. economy has been in recession about 20% of the time and has still managed to compound wealth at a dramatic clip. What’s more, we have never gone more than ten years at any time without at least one recession. Now, we are not currently in a recession, but you could expect between 10 and 15 in your lifetime. The sooner you can reconcile yourself to the inevitability of volatility, the faster you will be able to take advantage of all the good that markets do.

Brinker Capital understands that investing for the long-term can be daunting, especially during a time like this, but we are focused on providing investment solutions, like the Personal Benchmark program, that help investors manage the emotions of investing to achieve their unique financial goals.

For more of what not to do during times of market volatility, click here.

The views expressed are those of Brinker Capital and are not intended as investment advice or recommendation. For informational purposes only. Holdings are subject to change. Brinker Capital, Inc., a Registered Investment Advisor.

A Reliable Partner Dedicated to Delivering Better Outcomes for Advisors and Investors

Widger 4_v2Charles Widger, Founder & Executive Chairman

By now, many of you are aware of Curian Capital’s decision to exit the fee-based business to focus on the core activities of Jackson National Life Insurance Company.  I am sure there are many strong, global, corporate considerations that led them to this determination; nonetheless, it does not alleviate the disruption to impacted financial advisors and investors.

This situation reminds me of the motivations that led me to create Brinker Capital 28 years ago.  When our original parent company, Mutual Benefit, floundered in 1991, it was part of an unfortunate reoccurrence taking place in the financial service industry.  Venerable names like E.F. Hutton, Kidder Peabody and Prudential Bache were also falling by the wayside.  I was determined to make Brinker Capital different.

That is why I built an organization with the laser focus of helping advisors and investors succeed by delivering a premier investment experience that would allow them to achieve the outcomes that they were seeking.  I surrounded myself with professionals who were committed to this same vision, and I’m proud that six of the eight founders are still here today and further, that over 40% percent of my employees have been here for over 10 years.

Brinker Capital is 100% employee-owned. That has allowed us to make thoughtful, long-range decisions without outside ownership staring over our shoulder.  We are proud of our independence and will continue to be independent. Independence empowers Brinker Capital to continue to build this great organization that for 28 years has, and always will, put the advisor and investor first.

I, along with my colleagues, will continue to provide the best in investment management and advisor support.

For more information, please click here to read our latest press release.

Brinker Capital, Inc., a Registered Investment Advisor

Simple is Better

Jeff RauppJeff Raupp, CFA, Senior Investment Manager, Brinker Capital

Simple can be harder than complex: You have to work hard to get your thinking clean to make it simple. But it’s worth it in the end because once you get there, you can move mountains. ~Steve Jobs

If you can’t explain it simply, you don’t understand it well enough. ~Albert Einstein

As an aspiring young basketball player in my pre-teens, I was fortunate enough to have my dad coach my township basketball team. When watching him draw up and teach a play for our team to execute, I decided I, too, could design a play for us. I guess I had always been a bit of an analytic. I went home and proceeded to design what might have been the most complex play ever developed, involving multiple players setting multiple picks, variations depending on how the defense reacted, and multiple passes that required each player’s timing to be nothing less than perfect. I proudly showed it to my dad. He appropriately praised me for the effort and then, to my dismay, declined to implement it Play Callingat the next practice. Naturally, I bothered him incessantly about it, as only kids can do, until he finally sat me down and walked through the play. He pointed out that while on paper the play looked great, if the execution or timing was even slightly off for any of the players, the entire thing broke down. As a team, we were still grappling with the idea of executing a simple pick and roll, so a play this complex was destined for failure. For our basketball team, simple was better.

Years later, I have found this lesson to be applicable in so many cases, particularly in investing. When you think of all the factors that can affect returns—economic factors, geopolitical issues, company specific factors, investor sentiment, government regulation, etc.—the tendency is to think that to be successful in such a complex environment you need to come up with a complex solution. Like my basketball play, complex investment solutions can often look great on paper, but fail to deliver.

I’ve interviewed hundreds, if not thousands of investment managers covering any asset class you can imagine. One of the things I’ve learned over the years is that if I can’t walk out of that interview with a good understanding of the key factors that will make their product successful and how that will help me, I’m better off passing on the strategy.

An instance that stands out to me is the time I visited a manager where we discussed an immensely elaborate strategy that tracked hundreds of factors to find securities that they believed were attractive. We visited the floor where the portfolio was managed by computing firepower and a collection of PhDs that rivaled NASA. You really couldn’t help but be impressed by the speed at which their systems could make decisions on new data and execute trades, and the algorithms they used to optimize their inputs used just about every letter in the Greek alphabet.

Raupp_Simple_3.28.14_1The conversation then went towards discussing how all of this translates to performance and it hit me—all of this firepower didn’t produce a result that I couldn’t get elsewhere from cheaper, less-complex strategies. So while I could appreciate all the work that went into putting the strategy together, I had a hard time seeing how the end results helped our investors. I felt that in creating an intellectually impressive structure, the firm had lost sight of the bottom line—delivering results to their investors.

This isn’t to say that all complex investment strategies aren’t worthwhile. We use many in our portfolios and over the years they’ve added significant value. We spend a lot of time analyzing the types of trades and opportunities that these managers look for and use. But I’ve found that if I can’t step back and articulate why I’d use a strategy in three or four bullet points, I’m better off walking away.

Most of the time you’re better off with the simple pick and roll.

The views expressed are those of Brinker Capital and are for informational purposes only.

Show and Tell: Five Points to Make with Prospects

Sue Bergin@SueBergin

The best storytellers are the ones that have mastered the art of “show, don’t tell.” Their ghost stories, for example, have descriptions of settings and physical manifestations of emotions. Sentences like “it was a scary place,” serve only to punctuate what the reader or listener already concluded.

The same can be said of advisors. Telling someone that you can help them achieve their financial goals does not make nearly as big of an impact as when you show them how.

The following are five areas where it is important to show clients why you are the best choice.

Five Points to Make with Prospects:

  1. How you will organize their financial lives. While most clients don’t come out and admit it, their financial lives are chaotic. They may not know how many assets they truly have and how they can put them all to work to increase purchasing power. The first step for advisors is to show clients the before and after. Explain to them what they currently have now versus what their potential growth may look like. Demonstrate how you will make them feel more in control of their financial lives. It could be something as simple as taking out your iPad and showing them the client portal of wealth management tools.
  2. 6.11.13_Bergin_Show&TellHow you will help them make good investment decisions. The term “good investment decisions” is too opaque to resonate with clients. Instead, walk clients through the process used to create an Investment Policy Statement (IPS). Talk to the client about how an IPS helps to guide future decisions. In the recent Brinker Barometer, we learned that 72% of advisors use a written IPS to help clients make non-emotional investment decisions when the market is in flux. The IPS is tangible proof of a disciplined process that will benefit the client.
  3. What you do to ensure that clients get the best advice and service possible. Marketing-darling phrases like independent, objective and unbiased, fall flat. Instead, describe the process that you go through to ensure that your recommendations are appropriate for the need you are trying to solve.
  4. You have been there, done that. Your experience does not speak for itself. You have to give it a voice. If you just say, “I have been an advisor 22 years,” you miss the opportunity to highlight what you have seen throughout your career. It is more impressive to learn that you have helped others thrive in all market climates than to know that you’ve been at this for a while.
  5. You appreciate their business. It’s easy to say “I value your business,” but to convey that message through action takes a concerted effort. Personal touches such as the just-checking-in phone calls, handwritten notes, and occasional invitations to social events let clients know that their business and their well-being matter to you.

Reading The Fine Print – Part Two

Jeff RauppJeff Raupp, CFA, Senior Investment Manager

In part one of my blog post, I discussed how important it is to read the fine print when selecting the right managers. “Things are not always what they seem, and by doing a little bit of digging, you can unearth some red flags that hopefully help you make a more educated decision, or at least ask the right questions.”

I left you with three warning signs of sorts that I’ve run into throughout my years of selecting investment managers:

  • Backtested numbers
    When you take a particular portfolio, or a process, and ask, “How would this have performed over a certain time period?”—that’s backtesting. There’s merit in doing this, but you really have to be careful on the value you place on the data. Anyone can build a portfolio that looks great using backtested data. If it’s a portfolio of mutual funds, just pick the ones that did the best. If it’s a quantitative model or a tactical model, just pick the algorithm that worked the best. You’ll never see a backtested quantitative or tactical model that doesn’t have a good outcome in recent markets.Not surprisingly, I have yet to come across a quantitative or tactical portfolio that has performed in actuality as well as it performed in backtesting. A backtest is good for telling you how the strategy would perform in various markets to help develop your expectation levels, but should not be used to decide if the strategy adds value.
  • Seed Accounts
    4.26.13_Raupp_FinePrint_2Firms will often start seed or model accounts to get a track record of performance started. These typically have little or no client assets and are often funded entirely by firm assets. While the firm can make the claim that they’ve been running money that way for a number of years, the reality was that their clients didn’t experience the front end of that.There are a few risks in play here. The firm could have run multiple seed accounts, discarding the ones that didn’t work and promoting the one that did. The objective itself or the universe of eligible securities may have changed before the strategy was offered to clients. As with backtested numbers, there is value in looking at seed performance, but if the backbone of a strategy’s pitch is great performance in 2008 and there were minimal assets that benefited, you have to ask, “Why?” Would the firm make the same decisions with billions of client assets that they did with $100,000 of seed capital?
  • Merged Track Records
    When firms combine, or merge products, often from multiple track records comes one track record. Ideally, the track record from the product that was most reflective of the surviving product would be used, but, more likely, the best track record will be the one that wins out. Knowing whether the track record is reflective of the current team, process and philosophy is vital.

Whenever you look at the performance of an investment strategy, you should always give careful consideration of exactly what you’re looking at. Reading through the disclosure is a necessity, as is asking questions about things that are unclear. The fine print can often help you make more educated decisions of where to invest.

Reading The Fine Print – Part One

Jeff RauppJeff Raupp, CFA, Senior Investment Manager

While at a carnival a few months back, our ten-year-old daughter entered my wife into a “contest” to win a free ocean cruise, unbeknownst to us. A few weeks and many soliciting phone calls later, we realized we had an opportunity for a teaching point on reading the fine print. While the picture on the entry box for the contest certainly looked appealing, with a handsome couple sunbathing by clear, blue Caribbean waters, the reality was that “winning” the contest gave you one free cruise—while accompanied by another adult paying full price, meals and transportation to point of departure not included, other fees may apply. And, if that wasn’t the kicker enough, your entry meant that you agreed to be solicited by the sponsoring firm. Oh, and you had to sit through a presentation while on the cruise.

The lesson? Often when something seems too good to be true, it is. Before buying/entering/joining something, make sure that you know what you’re getting into. In other words, read the fine print!4.26.13_Raupp_FinePrint

This is advice I’ve found extremely valuable in the investment management industry when selecting investment managers. Things are not always what they seem, and by doing a little bit of digging, you can unearth some red flags that hopefully help you make a more educated decision, or at least ask the right questions. Disclosures, often ignored, are invaluable when analyzing the performance of a strategy you’re considering.

Here are a few situations I’ve run into:

  • Backtested Numbers
  • Seed Accounts
  • Merged Track Records

Look out for my second post next week as I go deeper into these scenarios!