Has Quantitative Easing Worked? A Two-Part Blog Series Perspective (Part II)

Solomon-(2)Brad Solomon, Junior Investment Analyst

Part two in a two-part blog series discussing quantitative easing measures on a domestic and global scale. Part one published last week.

Transmission to Main Street has been dubious.

The Fed’s FRB/US model, which is the workhorse behind quantifying QE’s transmission mechanisms into the general economy, forecasted a 0.2 percentage-point drop in unemployment over a 2-year time horizon as a result of a $500 billion LSAP, according to then-Fed governor Stein in 2012. Given that the cumulative scale of QE in the U.S. totaled around $4 trillion over about 4.4 years, excluding intermittent periods between buying sprees, the FRB/US model would then forecast a reduction in unemployment of 1.6 percentage points. (This assumes that there are no marginally diminishing returns to QE dollars.) Building in a “lag” of six months, the actual U.S. unemployment rate fell by 4.0 percentage points during this period and currently hovers near 5%, right above what is often pegged as the natural rate of unemployment. To what extent that reduction is due to QE, though, is very difficult to answer—there is no “control subject” in real-world experiments. The next-best-option is the event study that looks at variables prior to and following some stimulus, although this risks blending the effect with some other variable. While unemployment has fallen near its natural rate, anecdotal evidence speaks to widespread underemployment

Other metrics look either ambiguous or decidedly impressive. Across the U.S., U.K., Eurozone, and Japan, industrial production growth has been significantly more volatile than it was pre-recession; unemployment has fallen, with exception of the Eurozone where it has marched further upward after a double-dip recession in 2013; household saving as a percent of disposable income has come down substantially. Lack of healthy inflation has proven to be the fly in the ointment. Nearly 30 countries have explicitly adopted inflation targeting (around half of those in the last 15 years), but the majority continue to be plagued by nagging disinflation or outright deflation. Consider the poster child Japan who pioneered QE over the 2001-2006 period in its commitment to purchase $3-6 trillion in Japanese government bonds (JGBs) per month until core CPI became “stably above zero.” While the Bank of Japan wrapped up with the program in March 2006 after witnessing year-over-year core CPI in Japan clock in just above zero for three consecutive months, this was more of a mathematical win. Headline inflation over the period picked up solely due to a rapid rise in the price of crude oil, which arguably has little connection to monetary policy. This is not to say that some commentators have not already called for an indefinite deflationary environment, or that QE’s effects on the money supply don’t appear ambiguous.

Getting back to using the U.S. as an example, income growth has not followed the drop in unemployment, and inequality has persisted. Annualized growth rates since 2010 have been near zero and well below their long-term averages, and the lack of growth is particularly pronounced in the lower income quintiles.

Solomon_QE_4

On another front, record-low mortgage rates are undoubtedly a product of QE but have not translated into pre-2008 home buying, even in the presence of rising FICO scores and real home prices that are hovering around their 10-year trailing average. In fairness to QE, though, there simply seems to be a lack of a relationship between the cost of borrowing money to buy a home, and the demand for borrowing that money, as evidenced by the chart below.

Solomon_QE_5

QE’s efficacy seems to have varied case-by-case, and there is a growing consensus that there are diminishing marginal returns to QE.

Of this last point, Japan and the ECB should take note. While the Bank of Japan refrained from expanding its QE program at its meeting this past Friday above the current $670 billion p.a. rate, such expansion remains on the table for its November and December meetings. A similar decision faces the ECB in December, and the rhetoric of ECB President Mario Draghi has been mostly dovish in tone. (The annual rate of asset purchases by the ECB currently stands at about $816 billion.) While both banks will ultimately adhere to their mandates in trying to combat deflation and negative export growth, perhaps expectations should be set low for how effective further QE will be in meeting those mandates.

Proponents of real business cycle theory would not be surprised at much of the above—that is, that aggressive monetary policy has failed to override a general shift in appetites for home-buying, tepid supply-glut disinflation, reduced appetite by banks to lend, and the preference by businesses towards doing nothing productive with bond issuance besides repurchasing their own equity. These “exogenous” factors may overpower the stimulatory nature of QE, or the problem may be one of model specification. (Getting back to the home sales/mortgage rate example, QE may do its job of lowering borrowing rates, but this may not ultimately stoke home-buying appetites, which is a failure of the assumed indirect transmission mechanism that underlies QE’s founding.) Whatever the case, while it has helped solve short-run liquidity problems by injecting cash into the financial system, QE has proven sub-optimal in terms of being a cure-all to the woe of general economic lethargy.

Further reading

  1. Fawley, Brett & Christopher Neely. “Four Stories of Quantitative Easing.” (2013)
  2. Krishnamurthy, Arvind & Annette Vissing-Jorgensen. “The Ins and Outs of LSAPs.” (2013)
  3. Klyuev, Vladimir et. al. “Unconventional Choices for Unconventional Times.” (2009)
  4. McTeer, Robert. “Why Quantitative Easing May Not Work the Same Way in Europe as in the U.S.” (2015)
  5. Raab, Carolin et. al. “Large-Scale Asset Purchases by Central Banks II: Empirical Evidence.” (2015)
  6. Schuman, Michael. “Does QE Work? Ask Japan.” (2010)
  7. Stein, Jeremy. “Evaluating Large-Scale Asset Purchases.” (2012)
  8. Williams, John. “Monetary Policy at the Zero Lower Bound.” (2014)
  9. Williamson, Stephen D. “Current Federal Reserve Policy Under the Lens of Economic History.” (2015)
  10. Yardeni, Edward & Mali Quintana. “Global Economic Briefing: Central Bank Balance Sheets.” (2015)

The views expressed are those of Brinker Capital and are not intended as investment advice or recommendation. For informational purposes only. Holdings are subject to change. Brinker Capital, Inc., a Registered Investment Advisor.

Investment Insights Podcast

Miller_PodcastForecasting the Six Asset Classes

Fresh off his Capital Markets Assumption Meeting, Bill Miller discusses the 12-month forecast for the six major asset classes.

While the overall observation is that Brinker Capital is bullish across the six asset classes, here is the forecast for the next 12 months:

  • U.S. Equities – 7%
  • International Equities – 8%
  • Fixed Income – near 0%
  • Real Assets – 2.5%
  • Absolute Return – 3%
  • Private Equity – 10%

Click the play icon below to launch the audio recording.


The views expressed are those of Brinker Capital and are for informational purposes only. Holdings are subject to change.

Economic Data Lifts Stocks, Market Commentary by Joe Preisser

Global equities resumed their upward march last week, reclaiming levels unattained since April, following the issuance of economic data from both the Eurozone and the United States, which largely exceeded expectations. The release of gross domestic product figures from Germany and France offered encouragement to investors as they revealed more favorable readings than analysts had forecast. Alexander Kraemer, an analyst at Commerzbank AG was quoted by Bloomberg News, “while not great in any way, German and French GDP numbers were better than expected, which adds to the scenario that there is no risk of an imminent euro break up. It shows that global growth is not collapsing, which also helps reduce investment risks.”

Following closely on the heels of the positive news from the Continent was a report of retail sales from the United States which surpassed expectations. In a sign that consumer spending may be on the rise, all of the major categories surveyed rose to post the largest increase in five months (New York Times). Adding to the optimism already present in the marketplace were better than expected readings on industrial production and consumer prices, as well as continued signs of stabilization from the labor and housing markets in the U.S. (Bloomberg News) released during the latter portion of last week.

The concern with which the Israeli government views the threat of the nation of Iran acquiring a nuclear weapon was on full display last week as a marked increase in bellicose rhetoric as well as highly publicized preparedness measures for its citizenry emanated from the country. Comments made by the Israeli Ambassador to the United States, Michael Oren, during a Bloomberg Government breakfast in Washington last Wednesday served to highlight the rapidly rising tensions. “Diplomacy hasn’t succeeded. We’ve come to a very critical juncture where important decisions have to be made.”

The distribution of gas masks to the public, as well as the testing of other civil defense measures last week accompanied the strong warnings from Mr. Oren and further revealed the precariousness of the situation. As the potential for a preemptive Israeli military strike continues to mount, and with it the possibility of a major disruption of the supply of crude oil to the global marketplace, the risk premium assigned by traders around the world to the per barrel price has contributed significantly to the twelve per cent rally seen since June, which if unabated will hold negative repercussions for the world economy.

As the data released last week continues to outpace expectations, the belief has grown within the marketplace that the economic improvement seen, although still only incremental, may reduce the chances of the Federal Reserve enacting additionally accommodative monetary policies in the near term. In a reflection of this growing sentiment among traders, prices of U.S. Treasury debt have moved significantly lower over the course of the last several weeks, sending yields, which rise when prices decline, to levels unseen since May as the bond market has begun to adjust to the changing environment.

Byron Wien, Vice Chairman of the Blackstone Group’s advisory services unit gave voice to an increasing belief among investors, in an interview with Bloomberg News, “housing is bottoming, gasoline is down from the beginning of the year. The European situation is getting better, not resolved, but getting better…there will be more good news than bad.”